Oil was discovered in Qatar in 1940, in Dukhan Field. , The Guardian, a British national daily newspaper, produced a short documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing emirate for 2022". These revenues were used to fund the expansion and modernisation of Qatar's infrastructure.  Reflecting the multicultural make-up of the country, many other languages are also spoken, including Persian, Baluchi, Brahui, Hindi, Malayalam, Urdu, Pashto, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Nepali, Sinhalese, Bengali, Tagalog, and Indonesian. Qatari troops were also removed from the military coalition in Yemen. These are salt pans that can be found on the border with the Arabian Peninsula. With no income tax, Qatar (along with Bahrain) is one of the countries with the lowest tax rates in the world. , Qatari literature traces its origins back to the 19th century. With a length of 111.85 miles and a width of 52.82 miles, the total area of Qatar is approximately 6,835 square miles. , Qatar was estimated to host a football fan base of 1.6 million for the World Cup 2022.  In December 2011, however, Pearl restaurants were told to stop selling alcohol. , As of 2014[update], certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code allows punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions.  They also helped the Libyan rebels during the 2011 Battle of Tripoli. Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Kuwait regarding relations between the United ... Exchange of Notes concerning the Termination of Special Treaty Relations ... Northern Ireland and the State of Qatar, 3 September 1971, A Treaty of Friendship and an Exchange of Notes, each entered into on 3 September 1971. , In 2008 Qatar launched its National Vision 2030 which highlights environmental development as one of the four main goals for Qatar over the next two decades.  These elections—the first-ever in Qatar—were deliberately held on 8 March 1999, International Women's Day. In 2015, the national handball team emerged as runners-up to France in the World Men's Handball Championship as hosts, however the tournament was marred by numerous controversies regarding the host nation and its team.  Only Muslims considered medically fit are liable to have such sentences carried out. Qatar is located in the continent of Asia.  In 2010, at least 18 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to receive between 40 and 100 lashes for offences involving "illicit sexual relations" or alcohol consumption. It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship, particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of Qatar. Laws and decrees proposed by the Council of Ministers are referred to the Advisory Council (Majilis Al Shura) for discussion after which they are submitted to the Emir for ratification.  The Bahraini hostilities were in violation of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship of 1861. Al-Bairaq was launched in 2010 aims to provide high school students with an opportunity to experience a research environment in the Center for Advanced Materials in Qatar University.  Human rights activists praised Qatar's decision. , Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim customers.  There are also newspapers from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka with editions printed from Qatar. It is at a magical meridian that breathes in both the northern and eastern hemispheres. , In November 2002, emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani created The Supreme Education Council. Construction of the port began in 2010; it became operational in December 2016.  Sharia law is applied to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts (including adultery, robbery and murder). Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship.  As of 2015[update], Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are openly backing the Army of Conquest, an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar ash-Sham. Qatar National Day, hosted annually on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a sense of national identity.  Capable of handling up to 7.8 million tonnes of products annually, the bulk of trade which passes through the port consists of food and building materials. The program encompasses the STEM fields and languages. Other for-profit universities have also established campuses in the city. , The music of Qatar is based on Bedouin poetry, song and dance. According to the study published by the Washington-based Institute of International Finance, Qatar's per capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) was $106,000 (QR387,000) in 2012, helping the country retain its ranking as the world's wealthiest nation. After defeating the Bani Khalid in 1795, the Wahhabi were attacked on two fronts.  Since 1 July 2008, Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari has been the Minister for Culture, Arts and Heritage of Qatar. Qatar shares borders with two other Asian countries and three bodies of water. , Although Qatar was considered a dependency of Bahrain, the Al Khalifa faced opposition from the local tribes. Doha holds the WTA Premier tournament Qatar Ladies Open annually. , In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar is located in South-Western Asia. As driving is the primary mode of transport in Qatar, the road network is a major focus of the plan.  The Ottoman government imposed reformist (Tanzimat) measures concerning taxation and land registration to fully integrate these areas into the empire. , The country has no taxes on non-companies, but authorities have announced plans to levy taxes on junk food and luxury items. 12 of 2006 concerning the Cancelled Municipality of Mesaieed", "National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.  Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas. , The Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. Qatar's defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010, the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database. , As a small country with larger neighbours, Qatar seeks to project influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty. So far the government, the primary transport developer, has done well in terms of keeping up with the demand for new transportation options. Men were warned against wearing only shorts and singlets.  Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution.   Trade and industry in the emirate is overseen by the Ministry of Business and Trade. Orders in 2013 for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were followed in 2014 by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the US, and 2 tanker aircraft from Spain. His mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the resulting peace treaty were milestones because they implicitly recognised the distinctness of Qatar from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani. An exhaustive array of games & activities can be found here for all ages and preferences, where guests can have fun, socialize, compete and develop team-building skills with colleagues, friends, and family. Senate hearing has the answer", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011: Qatar, "US State Dept's Country Political Profile – Qatar", "Qatar shows how to manage a modern monarchy", "Population of Qatar by nationality – 2017 report", "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data", "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) | Data", "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports", "Indices & Data | Human Development Reports", "IFES Election Guide – Elections: Qatar Referendum Apr 29 2003", "Tiny Kingdom's Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern", "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels", "Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive? , In June 2013, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar after his father handed over power in a televised speech. The country's native population is relatively small. In the medical community, and in situations such as the training of nurses to work in Qatar, English acts as a lingua franca. " Many civilians have been killed and the large parts of the infrastructure in this region is now destroyed. The Emir announced Qatar's plans to hold its first national legislative elections in 2013. In 2016, the airport was named the 50th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, serving 37,283,987 passengers, a 20.2% increase from 2015.  Criticism of the government, Emir and ruling family in the media is illegal. , The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners. The Al Khalifa were effectively returned to power thereafter. , Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.. Non-Muslim expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal consumption.  The map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula.  Qatar University, founded in 1973, is the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period (c. 6500–3800 BC) have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements.  Furthermore, the government has launched educational outreach programs, such as Al-Bairaq. An exception is the Arabian red fox, which can be spotted during the (winter) day. , In October 2015 Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within one year. In July 2019, Amman appointed a new ambassador to Qatar, who had been withdrawn in 2017 in support of the Gulf-Arab allies. The contingent of expatriates which are not of South Asian origin represent around 28% of Qatar's population, of which the largest group is 260,000 Filipinos and 200,000 Egyptians, plus many other nationalities (including nationals of other Arab countries, Europeans, etc.).. President Mohamed Morsi via diplomatic support and the state-owned Al Jazeera network until he was overthrown by a military coup d'état in July 2013 following mass protests against his rule. Qatar commissioned international law firm DLA Piper to produce a report investigating the immigrant labour system. The shining jewel of Qatar, Doha is a multicultural city, home to most of the country's population as well as expatriate communities from a range of origins. Qatar's proved reserves of gas are the third-largest in the world, exceeding 250 trillion cubic feet (7,000 km³). It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, and it is the political and economic center of the country. English is commonly used as a second language, and a rising lingua franca, especially in commerce, to the extent that steps are being taken to try to preserve Arabic from English's encroachment. The peninsula is about 160kms (100 miles) north-south. As of 2013[update], the holdings were valued at $100 billion in assets.  TV broadcasting in Qatar was started in 1970. Located in the heart of Doha, between Al Asmakh street and Al Ahmed Street. ", "New Hope for Democracy in a Dynastic Land", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)", "Qatar: Migrant Construction Workers Face Abuse", World Cup Host Qatar Ranked Among Worst Places to Work by Unions, "Doing Business in Qatar: 2012 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies", "New Qatar emir shakes up sovereign wealth fund", "Qatar Holding LLC Among Investors in BlackBerrys $1 Billion Convertible Debt", "Qatar fund quietly builds $1bn Bank of America stake", "Qatar: what's next for the world's most aggressive deal hunter? Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. OPEC quotas on crude oil production, the lower price for oil, and the generally unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. Islamic polygyny is permitted.  Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold 51% of any venture in the Emirate. The World Cup campsites on the outskirts were reported to have licensed bars, restaurants, entertainment and washing facilities. The law is said to restrict press freedom and carries prison sentences and fines for broad reasons such as jeopardising local peace or publishing false news. Qatar signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 21 August 1996. Mehmed's demand that Jassim disbands his troops and pledge his loyalty to the Ottomans was met with refusal. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 1915, with the presence of British gunboats in the harbour, Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (who was pro-British) persuaded the remainder to abandon the fort and, when British troops approached the following morning, they found it deserted. Ranked by population, Qatar is the 148th largest country of the 195 countries in total. New Qatar National Museum…a journey in a world of fantasy! " Journalists are also subject to prosecution for insulting Islam. The government of Qatar has investments and properties all around the world.  On 5 May 1935, while agreeing an oil concession with the British oil company, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Abdullah signed another treaty with the British government which granted Qatar protection against internal and external threats. Countries near Qatar include Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The Dawhat Salwa Bay is along the western coastline of Qatar.  Oil reserves were first discovered in 1939. This resulted in the maritime Qatari–Bahraini War of 1867–1868, in which Bahraini and Abu Dhabi forces sacked and looted Doha and Al Wakrah. Qatar is a country with a small population which is located in the continent/region of Asia.. Countries near Qatar include Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.. Its biggest cities and towns include Doha, Khor, Umm Bab and Abū Samrah. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. The United Arab Emirates share a border with Qatar in the southeast, and Saudi Arabia borders the State of Qatar in the southwest.  Under Emir Hamad, Qatar has experienced a moderate degree of liberalisation, including the launch of the Al Jazeera television station (1996), the endorsement of women's suffrage or right to vote in municipal elections (1999), drafting its first written constitution (2005) and inauguration of a Roman Catholic church (2008).  The negotiations were the first stage in the development of Qatar as a sheikhdom. Abdul Jalil Al-Tabatabai and Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Uthaymeen, two poets dating back to the early 19th century, formed the corpus of Qatar's earliest written poetry. It was officially opened in September 2017, and is expected to become fully operational by 2020. , The National Museum of Qatar was opened to the public on 28 March 2019. As a result, it is the richest state per-capita in the world. Where is Qatar?  Qatar has recently signed defense pacts with the United States and United Kingdom, as well as with France earlier in 1994. Qatar is a country located in the Middle West and part of a group of countries having extensive crude oil resources. As of 2014[update], it has investments around the world in Valentino, Siemens, Printemps, Harrods, The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen Group, Royal Dutch Shell, Bank of America, Tiffany, Agricultural Bank of China, Sainsbury's, BlackBerry, and Santander Brasil. Where is Qatar located on the world map? , Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country. 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