Nevertheless, his tales were regarded as fantasy by later Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. [citation needed]. [1] Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and then Cornwall, eventually circumnavigating the British Isles. Early Russian exploration By the end of the 16th century, the Russians had established a commercial route via the Arctic to the fur-trading centre of Mangazeya on the Taz River in western Siberia. Founded by Aleister Crowly in the early 20th century, the Thelema religion is both intriguing and mysterious. 12 1885. The Vikings sailed from Iceland and first settled in Greenland in 981. The ship's captain on this expedition was Lieutenant Louis Palander of the Swedish Royal Navy. But did you know he is also the third person to ever reach the South Pole? Unfortunately, his writings have been lost and there is much speculation as to whether Pytheas voyaged to Iceland, the Shetlands, or possibly northern Norway. The Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533; from their base at Kola, the Pomors explored the Barents Region, Spitsbergen, and Novaya Zemlya—all of which are in the Arctic Circle. Other notable feats of his include charting the Antarctic coastline and discovering the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ross Sea, and two volcanos (Mount Terror and Mount Erebus). Survivors were eventually recovered. On a 1596 expedition, he and his crew became the first western Europeans to survive a winter in the high Arctic after their ship became trapped in sea ice on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. However, in the harsh environment, they were not self-sufficient and required supplies, which were transported from Norway and Iceland across the sea. On March 17, 1959, the USS Skate (SSN-578) surfaced on the North Pole and dispersed the ashes of explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins. The first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who lost his route due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands. Well, he is. Europeans began exploring the Arctic in the Elizabethan era when English seamen sought a shortcut to Asia by the seas north of America — the so-called Northwest Passage. They also explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia. Though he was unable to pass through the icy Arctic waters, he reported to his sponsors that the passage they sought is "a matter nothing doubtfull [sic],"[This quote needs a citation] and secured support for two additional expeditions, reaching as far as Hudson Bay. In 1969 Wally Herbert, on foot and by dog sled, became the first man to reach the North Pole on muscle power alone, on the 60th anniversary of Robert Peary's famous but disputed expedition. About this book . This led to the first ‘International Polar Year’ (1882-83), which saw scientific … This was a r… T he faded sign is nothing more than a simple wooden board, a faint white hand painted on its center, the index finger pointing ahead. [citation needed] They are believed to have survived until around 1450. [17], On May 9, 1926, Americans Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claimed to have flown over the North Pole in a Fokker F.VIIa/3m Tri-motor monoplane. [citation needed] The Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole. Although the first humans explored its interior only a 100 years ago, interest in the continent has existed for Pomor activity in Northern Asia declined and the bulk of exploration in the 17th century was carried out by Siberian Cossacks, sailing from one river mouth to another in their Arctic-worthy kochs. The first persons to reach the North Pole on foot (or skis) and return with no outside help, no dogs, air planes, or re-supplies were Richard Weber (Canada) and Misha Malakhov (Russia) in 1995. Part of their reasoning was that it was a small nation. Adriana Craciun is still asking questions. In 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I, the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Pictures; Andrey Golovnev, Professor from Ural Federal University, prepared a report for the International Northern Archaeological Congress. They developed pasture land and farms on the western Greenland coast. Shell’s recent aborted venture grabbed headlines, but it wasn’t the first foray into the polar region and may not be the last. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century. Sir James Clark Ross is considered to be a pioneer in Antarctic exploration. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. However, we are most concerned with the history of Atlantic Arctic exploration here, particularly that which concerns the Svalbard Archipelago. Crary.[20]. His three years in the expedition only made him more curious about Antarctic exploration and for nearly 20 years he kept venturing into the Poles, recording anything he possibly could from these parts of the world. The Americans relied on massive firepower and air superiority. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. They then founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. [8] Eighty years after Dezhnev, in 1728, another Russian explorer, Danish-born Vitus Bering on Sviatoy Gavriil made a similar voyage in reverse, starting in Kamchatka and going north to the passage that now bears his name (Bering Strait). When determining whether to take part in the Vietnam War on a grand scale, US leaders and political advisers felt they could quickly take over the conflict and control Vietnam. The Scandinavian peoples also pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. An illustrated history of Arctic oil exploration. Although these expeditions failed, new coasts and islands were discovered. Eastern Australia was not officially claimed for Britain by Capt. Western parts of the passage were simultaneously being explored by Northern European countries like England, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway, looking for an alternative seaway to China and India. His first journey to Antarctica in the 1800s was made possible thanks to his service as a British Royal Navy officer. It then proceeded to travel under the entire Polar ice cap. The crew of the airship Norge (including Roald Amundsen and the American sponsor Lincoln Ellsworth) flew over the Pole on May 12, 1926. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage westward. Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. Thousands of years ago the hunter-gatherers of the Siberian coast pioneered east across the Bering Strait to colonise Alaska and northern Canada, eventually finding themselves in Greenland. Exploring and discovering uncharted territories is always an exciting concept. [citation needed]. His route was not commercially practical; in addition to the time taken, some of the waterways were extremely shallow.[13]. The progress of the Vietnam War was documented and compiled in a file known as the Pentagon Papers. The Arctic is one of the most remote and uncharted areas of the world. [citation needed] Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. He grew up in Greenland speaking Greenlandic and Danish, and has been called the "father of Eskimology"[14] and was the first Greenlander of Inuit and European descent to cross the Northwest Passage via dog sled. Pictures; Andrey Golovnev, Professor from Ural Federal University, prepared a report for the International Northern Archaeological Congress. After six days of sailing, he reached land at the edge of a frozen sea (described by him as "curdled"), and described what is believed to be the aurora and the midnight sun. It was Bering who gave their current names to Diomede Islands, discovered and first described by Dezhnev.[9]. Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery, List of firsts in the Geographic North Pole, Online Exhibit Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library and Renaissance Culture, "Excerpt from A Larger Discourse of the Same Voyage", "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online", Albert Operti Correspondence with Arctic Explorers, William Hunt Manuscript and Correspondence on Arctic Explorers, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arctic_exploration&oldid=994456199, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 20:28. And while it definitely has the appeal of adrenaline and primal survival instincts, it’s also incredibly dangerous. With all the amazing discoveries hidden in the ice and water, Arctic exploration can truly be considered a new scientific frontier. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast. From 1576 to 1578, he took three trips to what is now the Canadian Arctic in order to find the passage. Published on 09/02/2016, 2:03pm. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. Documenting more than 2500 years of Arctic exploration, from the earliest seafarers of antiquity and the great naval and mercantile voyages in search of the Northwest and Northeast Passages, to the conquest of the North Pole and even beyond, A History of Arctic Exploration is the definitive account of expeditions made throughout the great Northern polar expanse. In 1648 the most famous of these expeditions, led by Fedot Alekseev and Semyon Dezhnev, sailed east from the mouth of Kolyma to the Pacific and doubled the Chukchi Peninsula, thus proving that there was no land connection between Asia and North America. Geographically, though, it's almost as big as Germany. Fri, Sep 04, 2015. Due to the threat of growing communism, the US gradually took a more prominent role in the conflict. Ann Bancroft is pretty modern in terms of Arctic exploration, and one of the few female explorers to venture there. Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage by sea in 1851[10] when he looked across M'Clure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. The story of Arctic exploration involves many nations and peoples -- and of course, like other lands in what Europeans called the "New" world, large areas of the Arctic were already inhabited by peoples such as the Sami of Lapland, and the Yupik, Inupiat, and Inuit of North America. At the time of the Vietnam War, world leaders feared that communism might spread from one nation to the next. Many modern explorers, including Olympic skiers using modern equipment, contend that Peary could not have reached the pole on foot in the time he claimed. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. The Northwest Passage connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. English and Dutch exploration of the Eurasian Arctic After a long period of inactivity following the decline of the Vikings, leadership in Arctic exploration was assumed in the early 16th century by the Dutch and the English. Chancellor and his crew made it to the mouth of the Dvina River and the town of Arkhangelsk, where they were met by a delegation from the Tsar, Ivan the Terrible. Sadly, despite surviving months of starvation, scurvy, and brutal weather in a makeshift cabin built from the wreckage of his ship, Barentsz never made it back to Amsterdam alive, dying just a few days after … [1], Some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia (now Marseille) on the Mediterranean coast. On April 19, 1968, Ralph Plaisted reached the North Pole via snowmobile, the first surface traveler known with certainty to have done so. Nobile’s second trip was in the airship Italia that ran into a storm on the return trip and crashed on the ice. [citation needed] In 1609, while in the service of the Dutch East India Company, the English explorer Henry Hudson sailed up what is now called the Hudson River in search of the Passage; he reached present-day Albany, New York, before giving up. You may recognize Sir Edmund Hillary’s name from New Zealand’s $5 bill or from his impressive climbing career as the first person to scale the Everest to its full height (1953). [2] Navigators were better able to chart their positions, and the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced. While no one knows exactly how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle. [citation needed] In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between America and Asia. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule, even farther to the north. He was the first to identify Antarctica as a continent and not a group of islands and was also the first person to discover the northern magnetic pole (1831). Brought back to Moscow, he launched the Muscovy Company, promoting trade between England and Russia. However, the strait was blocke… History of the Arctic exploration. McCannon discusses polar exploration and science, nation-building, diplomacy, environmental issues, and climate change, and the role indigenous populations have played in the arctic’s story. Concise chronology of approach to the poles, Scott Polar Research Institute. U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Joseph O. Fletcher and Lieutenant William Pershing Benedict landed a plane at the Pole on May 3, 1952, accompanied by the scientist Albert P. [15] Rasmussen and his friend Peter Freuchen participated in seven Thule Expeditions, named after ultima Thule, and wrote numerous books on their Arctic experiences. Some years later, Steven Borough, the master of Chancellor's ship, made it as far as the Kara Sea, when he was forced to turn back because of icy conditions.[7]. On August 3, 1958, the American submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) reached the North Pole without surfacing. Humans have been exploring the North American Arctic for centuries, beginning about 5,000 years ago when Palaeoeskimos were looking for a homeland, followed by the Thule — ancestors of the Inuit.European exploration of the same region began with the Norse in the 10th century and, after a short pause, was continued by Englishmen during the Elizabethan era (1558–1603). By 1828 they knew that no economically viable passage existed, while the Franklin catastrophe of 1845 ended scientific interest, although the search for Franklin charted much of the Canadian Arctic. He is one of the first and most famous Antarctic explorers in history. On April 6, 1909, Robert Peary claimed to be the first person in recorded history to reach the North Pole[10] (although whether he actually reached the Pole is disputed). A total of 58,318 US military personnel reportedly died in the war. In 1992, Bancroft visited the South Pole for the first time, becoming the first woman in history to travel to both Poles. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. Ostensibly, McCannon's "A History of the Arctic" is a history of a geographic region, the waters and land that have fluctuated north of 60°N, from the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch roughly 2.6 million years ago to the present. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. Hillary is also the first person in history to travel to both Poles — his first journey to the North Pole was in 1985 and accompanied by none other than Neil Armstrong! [1][16] He traveled with the aid of dogsleds and three separate support crews who turned back at successive intervals before reaching the Pole. The motives behind polar exploration were not merely adventure: from the 19th century scientific study of the Arctic landscape, ocean and climate were growing in importance. His position was verified independently by a US Air Force meteorological overflight. The Healy seamount is a stunning find that rises more than 3000 meters off the ocean floor. However, the strait was blocked by young ice at this point in the season, and not navigable to ships. Amundsen disappeared, with the crew of his sea plane, during the rescue operations. In the first half of the 19th century, parts of the Northwest Passage were explored separately by a number of different expeditions, including those by John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross; and overland expeditions led by John Franklin, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson, and John Rae. [citation needed] Most notable is the 1596 expedition led by Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz who discovered Spitsbergen and Bear Island. Here are three of the people who’ve explored the freezing ice caps and lived to tell the tale. On 2 May 2007, BBC's Top Gear reached the 1996 position of the magnetic north pole (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}78°35.7′N 104°11.9′W / 78.5950°N 104.1983°W / 78.5950; -104.1983 (Magnetic North Pole 1996)) in a modified Toyota Hilux. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better pasturage and hunting grounds. Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage by sea in 1851 when he looked across M'Clure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. [3] One widely disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice, Niccolo and Antonio Zeno, allegedly made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558.[4]. The first people to have without doubt walked on the North Pole were the Soviet party of 1948 under the command of Alexander Kuznetsov, who landed their aircraft nearby and walked to the pole.[19]. His first journey to Antarctica in the 1800s was made possible thanks to his service as a British Royal Navy officer. A number of previous expeditions set out with the intention of reaching the North Pole but did not succeed; that of British naval officer William Edward Parry in 1827, the tragic American Polaris expedition under Charles Francis Hall in 1871, the ill-fated Jeannette Expedition commanded by US Navy Lieutenant Commander George W. De Long in 1879, and the Norwegian Fram expedition of Fridtjof Nansen in 1895. Fri, Sep 04, 2015. The First Indochina War broke out between the communist North and the French-backed resistance in the South. They knew about the Arctic - named Arktos -The Bear, from the constellation the great bear and decided that in order to balance the world, there should be a similar cold Southern landmass that was the same but the opposite "Ant - Arktos" - opposite The Bear. [12], The Northwest Passage was not completely conquered by sea until 1906, when the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had sailed just in time to escape creditors seeking to stop the expedition, completed a three-year voyage in the converted 47-ton herring boat Gjøa. He is one of the first and most famous Antarctic explorers in history. It was the ancient Greeks who first came up with the idea of Antarctica. In the first half of the 19th century, parts of the Northwest Passage were explored separately by a number of different expeditions, including those by John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross; and overland expeditions led by John Franklin, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson, and John Rae. Although they won almost all the major military encounters with their enemies, they still lost the war on a political and social level. Explore the long history of exploration of the Arctic – from 330 BC to the present. Knud Rasmussen (1879 - 1933) led several Arctic expeditions. The Vietnam War was also known as the Second Indochina War. She’s also used her skills and knowledge to draw attention to important environmental issues such as global warming and the basic human right of having clean water. However, their claim to have reached the Pole is disputed.[18]. Bancroft didn’t only travel to the ends of the world and collect samples. This diplomatic course allowed British Ambassadors such as Sir Francis Cherry the opportunity to consolidate geographic information developed by Russian merchants into maps for British exploration of the region. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Willoughby's crew was shipwrecked off the Kola Peninsula, where they eventually died of scurvy. They feared it would spread like a contagion to Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and their neighbors. Norge was designed and piloted by the Italian Umberto Nobile, who overflew the Pole a second time on May 24, 1928. They were heavily criticized for not understanding Vietnam's culture and history. While they flourished initially, these settlements eventually foundered due to changing climatic conditions (see Little Ice Age). Sea ice was a key factor in the development of the Viking immigration into Greenland and the ultimate demise of their settlements. INTO THE ICE: The Story of Arctic Exploration User Review - Kirkus From Curlee (Ships of the Air, 1996, etc. Although it was officially a conflict between North and South Vietnam, direct US involvement resulted in 8,744,000 American soldiers seeing action over almost twenty years. This activity began in the 16th cent. You can learn more about him through his autobiography, A Voyage of Discovery and Research to Southern and Antarctic Regions. The idea to explore this region was initially economic, and was first put forward by Russian diplomat Dmitry Gerasimov in 1525. This quickly led to a wave of colonization. History of the Arctic exploration. 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